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Citation Help: ASA

ASA Style, 6th Edition

Cite in two places: in the text and at the end of the paper.

  • Parenthetical in-text citations (author, date) appear at the end of a sentence before the period.
  • A References page at the end of the document has full citations in alphabetical order formatted with a hanging indent. 

Every in-text citation must correspond with a full citation on the References page, and vice versa. You can't include a source in your references list if you don't also cite it in your paper.

Sample Reference Entries

Books

Last name, First name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

Criado-Perez, Caroline. 2019. Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. New York: Abrams Press.

Book Chapters

Last name, First name. Year of Publication. "Title of Chapter." Pages in Title of Book, edited by First name Last Name. City of Publication: Publisher.

Mays, Kyle T. 2021. "Blackness and Indigeneity." Pp. 123-125 in Four Hundred Souls: A Community History of African America, 1619-2019, edited by Ibram X. Kendi and Keisha N. Blain. New York:One World.

Journal Articles

Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Journal Volume(Issue): Pages. DOI (if available).

Bureau, Marie‐Christine, and Barbara Rist. 2020. "The Practical and Symbolic Regulation of Multi‐parenthood." International Social Science Journal 70(235/236):67–78. doi:10.1111/issj.12225.

Websites

Last name, First name (or Organization). Year of Publication. "Title of Webpage." Name of Publication (if different from the author), Month and Day of Publication, if available. Retrieval Date (http://webaddress.com).

Friedman, Thomas L. 2017. "Climate Shifts Aren't Limited to the Weather." Opinion, New York Times, April 2. Retrieved July 25, 2022 (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/02/opinion/climate-change-technology-globalization-china.html).

Society for American Archaeology. n.d. "Archaeology Law & Ethics." Washington, D.C.: Society for American Archaeology. Retrieved July 25, 2022 (https://www.saa.org/about-archaeology/archaeology-law-ethics).

General Formatting Rules

References should include four elements:

  • Author: Who is responsible for the work?
  • Date: When was the work published?
  • Title: What is the work called?
  • Source: Where can I find the work?

For the city of publication, only include the two-letter state abbreviation if it is necessary to identify the city.

If an article is retrieved from a database, include a retrieval date and the name of the database, but do not provide an article link. 

Examples of In-text Citations

Use a colon to separate the publication year from page numbers, if page numbers are included.

Parenthetical Citations

Placed at the end of a sentence, before the endmark.

  • One author: During the 1700s in America, Black and indigenous people found common ground in how they were treated by white settlers (Mays 2021).
  • Two authors: Blended families often create rituals to include new partners in the family (Bureau and Rist 2020).

When the resource has three authors, include all three last names in the first citation, and thereafter use "et al." If the citation has more than three authors, use "et al." for all citations.

  • Three authors, first mention: The study examined nonlethal violence through the lens of social disorganization theory (Boggess, Powers, and Chamberlain 2018).
  • Three authors, secondary mentions, or more than three authors, any mention: Data from the Trans*National study was used to investigate discrimination against trans women in the Bay area (Wesson et al. 2021).

Narrative Citations

Narrative in-text citations incorporate citation elements into the text.

  • One author: Mays (2021) discusses the commonality between...
  • Two authors: Bureau and Rist (2020) note the struggle to create new rituals...
  • Three authors, first mention: Boggess, Powers and Chamberlain (2018) discuss this theory...
  • Three authors, secondary mentions, or more than three authors, any mention: Wesson et al. (2021) investigated...

Direct Quotations

For direct quotes, the page number is separated from the year of publication by a colon.

  • During the 1700s in America, Black and indigenous people found common ground in their "dispossession and enslavement" (Mays 2021:125).

ASA Style Guide

The guide is the authoritative source on ASA Style and the best place to look for information. The ASA released the 6th edition of the guide in 2019. Always check with your professor for any specific citation requirements.

Resources for ASA Style