Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Help: IEEE

IEEE Style, 2021 Edition

Cite in two places, in the text and in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  • In-text citations include numbers in square brackets that coordinate with the full citation listed in the reference list.
  • The reference list is organized numerically, not alphabetically.

IEEE refers writers to the Chicago Manual of Style for further guidance on grammar and usage.

Sample Reference Entries:

Journal Articles

Basic Format: [#]     Author, "Title," Journal, volume, number, page range, month year, DOI. "


[1]     K. M. Bivens and K. Cole, “The grotesque protest in social media as embodied, political rhetoric,” Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5-25, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1177/0196859917735650.


[2]     “Dynamixel Pro,” Robotis. Accessed October 30, 2017. [Online]. Available:


Basic Format: [#]     Author, Title, volume, edition. City, State, Country: Publisher, year.


[3]     B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986.

[4]     C.M. Millward, A Biography of the English Language, 2nd ed. Fort Worth, TX, USA: Harcourt Brace, 1996.

[5]     W. R. Leonard and M. H. Crawford, Eds. Human Biology of Pastoral Populations. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.

Book Chapters

Basic Format: [#]     J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, (only U.S. State), Country: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx.


[6]     L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55–70.


[7]     R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47–160.

Translated work

[8]     M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961 (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York, NY, USA: Interscience, 1962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127–135).

Electronic Books

Basic Format: [#]     Author, Title, volume, edition. City, State, Country: Publisher, year. [Online]. Available: URL. Accessed: month day, year.


[9]     P. H. Ditchfield, Old English Customs Extant at the Present Time. London, UK: George Redway, 1896. [Online]. Available: Accessed: July 1, 2019.

[10]     The Terahertz Wave eBook. ZOmega Terahertz Corp., 2014. [Online]. Available: eBook/zomega_ebook_pdf_1206_sr.pdf. Accessed: May 19, 2014.

General Formatting Rules

  • Author’s name listed as first initial of first name, then full last.
  • Title of article, patent, conference paper, etc., in quotation marks.
  • Title of journal or book in italics.
  • Authors and dates do not have to be written out after the first reference; just use the bracket.
  • IEEE style citations often call for abbreviated titles for publications. See Abbreviations for IEEE Publications section for a full list of IEEE approved abbreviations.
  • For journal articles include a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or an Article ID if available.

Conference and Conference Proceedings

The general form for citing conference proceedings is to list the author and title of the paper, followed by the name of the conference using the following abbreviations as well as those found in the “Common Abbreviations of Words in References” list (see IEEE Reference Guide, pp5.)

Write out all the remaining words, but omit most articles and prepositions like “of the” and “on.” That is, Proceedings of the 1996 Robotics and Automation Conference becomes Proc. 1996 Robot. Automat. Conf. NOTE: All published conference or proceedings papers have page numbers.

Paper Presented at a Conference

Basic Format: J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, Country, Month and day(s), year, Paper number.


J. Arrillaga and B. Giessner, “Limitation of short-circuit levels by means of HVDC links,” presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Jul. 12–17, 1990, Paper 70 CP 637.

D. Caratelli, M. C. Viganó, G. Toso, and P. Angeletti, “Analytical placement technique for sparse arrays,” presented at the 32nd ESA Antenna Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Oct. 5–8, 2010.

Conference Proceedings in Print

A. Amador-Perez and R. A. Rodriguez-Solis, “Analysis of a CPW-fed annular slot ring antenna using DOE,” in Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp., Jul. 2006, pp. 4301–4304.

G. R. Faulhaber, “Design of service systems with priority reservation,” in Conf. Rec. 1995 IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., pp. 3–8. *** If the year is given in the conference title, it may be omitted from the end of the reference as shown here.***

Conference Proceedings with DOI

G. Veruggio, “The EURON roboethics roadmap,” in Proc. Humanoids ’06: 6th IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 612–617, doi: 10.1109/ICHR.2006.321337.

Resources for IEEE Style