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Citation Help: IEEE

IEEE Style, 2021 Edition

Cite in two places: in the text and in the reference list at the end of the paper.

IEEE refers writers to the Chicago Manual of Style for further guidance on grammar and usage.

Jump to:  In-text citations  |  References

Reference Entries

The reference list is organized numerically, not alphabetically.

General Formatting Rules

  • Author’s name listed as first initial of first name, then full last.
  • Title of article, patent, conference paper, etc., in quotation marks.
  • Title of journal or book in italics.
  • IEEE style citations often call for abbreviated titles for publications. See Abbreviations for IEEE Publications section for a full list of IEEE approved abbreviations.
  • For journal articles include a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or an Article ID if available.

Journal Articles

Basic Format: [#]     Author, "Title," Journal, vol. #, no. #, page range, month year, doi: xxx.


[1]   K. M. Bivens and K. Cole, “The grotesque protest in social media as embodied, political rhetoric,” Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5-25, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1177/0196859917735650.


[2]   “Dynamixel Pro,” Robotis. Accessed October 30, 2017. [Online]. Available:


Basic Format: [#]     Author, Title, volume, edition. City, State, Country: Publisher, year.


[3]   B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986.

[4]   C.M. Millward, A Biography of the English Language, 2nd ed. Fort Worth, TX, USA: Harcourt Brace, 1996.

[5]   W. R. Leonard and M. H. Crawford, Eds. Human Biology of Pastoral Populations. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.

Book Chapters

Basic Format: [#]     J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of the Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, (only U.S. State), Country: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx.


[6]   L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55–70.


[7]   R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47–160.

Translated work

[8]   M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961 (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York, NY, USA: Interscience, 1962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127–135).

Electronic Books

Basic Format: [#]     Author, Title, volume, edition. City, State, Country: Publisher, year. [Online]. Available: URL. Accessed: month day, year.


[9]   P. H. Ditchfield, Old English Customs Extant at the Present Time. London, UK: George Redway, 1896. [Online]. Available: Accessed: July 1, 2019.

[10]  The Terahertz Wave eBook. ZOmega Terahertz Corp., 2014. [Online]. Available: eBook/zomega_ebook_pdf_1206_sr.pdf. Accessed: May 19, 2014.


Basic format: [#]     Author, Date, “Title of Dataset,” Source, or doi: xxx.

Example with a URL:

[11]  S. Ansolabehere, M. Palmer, and A. Lee, January 20, 2014, “Precinct-Level Election Data. V1,” distributed by Harvard Election Data Archive, UNF:5:5C9UfGjdLy2ONVPtgr45qA==

Example with a DOI:

[12]  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Aug. 2013, “Treatment Episode Dataset: Discharges (TEDS-D): Concatenated, 2006 to 2009,” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, doi: 10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2.


The IEEE Reference Guide does not include guidance on citing generative AI. According to a statement circulated on an engineering librarians mailing list, IEEE representatives have advised that "AI-generated material is not considered a valid reference and should not be cited nor included as a reference". For papers submitted to IEEE journals or conferences, however, IEEE requires full disclosure of AI content and the AI system used to generate it in an Acknowledgments section.

For course assignments requiring IEEE citation style, your instructor may be able to share recommendations for citing AI in their course.

One recommendation would be to follow IEEE's guidance for private communications. To cite Chat GPT, for instance, this might appear as follows: 

[13] Open AI ChatGPT, private communication, Aug. 2023.

Because this citation provides limited detail, you should provide context about your ChatGPT prompt and information generated by ChatGPT in the text of the paper. 

(Credit: University of Wisconsin)

Conference and Conference Proceedings

The general form for citing conference proceedings is to list the author and title of the paper, followed by the name of the conference using the following abbreviations as well as those found in the “Common Abbreviations of Words in References” list (see IEEE Reference Guide, pp5.)

Write out all the remaining words, but omit most articles and prepositions like “of the” and “on.” That is, Proceedings of the 1996 Robotics and Automation Conference becomes Proc. 1996 Robot. Automat. Conf.

All published conference or proceedings papers have page numbers.

Paper Presented at a Conference

Basic Format: J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, Country, Month and day(s), year, Paper number.


[1]  J. Arrillaga and B. Giessner, “Limitation of short-circuit levels by means of HVDC links,” presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Jul. 12–17, 1990, Paper 70 CP 637.

[2]  D. Caratelli, M. C. Viganó, G. Toso, and P. Angeletti, “Analytical placement technique for sparse arrays,” presented at the 32nd ESA Antenna Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Oct. 5–8, 2010.

Conference Proceedings in Print

[3]  A. Amador-Perez and R. A. Rodriguez-Solis, “Analysis of a CPW-fed annular slot ring antenna using DOE,” in Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp., Jul. 2006, pp. 4301–4304.

[4]  G. R. Faulhaber, “Design of service systems with priority reservation,” in Conf. Rec. 1995 IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., pp. 3–8. *** If the year is given in the conference title, it may be omitted from the end of the reference as shown here.***

Conference Proceedings with DOI

[5]  G. Veruggio, “The EURON roboethics roadmap,” in Proc. Humanoids ’06: 6th IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 612–617, doi: 10.1109/ICHR.2006.321337.

In-text Citations

Authors and dates do not have to be mentioned, unless they’re relevant to your text. In-text citations include numbers in square brackets that coordinate with the full citation listed in the reference list.

Examples shown by Brown [4], [5]. mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9].

...Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]; Wood et al. [7].

Use et al. when three or more names are given, or treat them as nouns – e.g.: as demonstrated in [3]; according to [4] and [6]–[9].

Resources for IEEE Style

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