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Chicago Style Guidance
Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 16th edition
CMS appears in two forms. Ask your instructor which form of CMS to use.
- Notes/Bibliography (NB) style is most often used in literature, history, and arts.
- Author/Date (AD) style is primarily used in science and social science.
Characteristics of Chicago Style
- Footnotes or endnotes are coordinated with superscript numbers that appear in the body of the text.
- A bibliography of all sources with full citations in alphabetical order formatted with a hanging indent appears at the end of the document. This is called a Bibliography in NB style and References in AD style.
The Chicago Manual of Style (either print or online) is the authoritative source on Chicago Style and the best place to look for information. For formats, guidelines and examples online, visit the Purdue OWL Chicago Formatting & Style Guide. Always check with your professor for any specific citation requirements.
Resources for Chicago Style
Turabian Style is the student version of Chicago Style, for papers not intended for publication.
Ibid. is the abbreviation for Ibidem (meaning "in the same place" in Latin), and was used in previous versions of Chicago Style to denote that two or more consecutive citations were from the same source. The Chicago Manual now recommends using shortened citations rather than Ibid.