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HIST 3310:History of Inequality: Chicago

Chicago Notes and Bibliography, 17th Edition

Two kinds of citations:

  1. Footnotes/Endnotes occur in the order in which the citations occur and point to specific ideas being cited, either on the same page (footnotes) or at the end of the main text (endnotes).
  2. Bibliography arranged alphabetically shows full list of works cited or consulted.

Always check with your professor for any specific citation requirements.

Sample Bibliography Entries


Last name, First name. Title. Place: Publisher, date.

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking Press, 1963.

Book Chapters

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." In Title of Book, edited by Editors, page range. Place: Publisher, date.

Hempton, David. "The People Called Methodists: Transitions in Britain and North America." In Oxford Handbook of Methodist Studies, edited by James E. Kirby and William J. Abraham, 67-84. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. 

Journal Articles

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume (date):page range. 

Kohl, Martha. “Women’s Suffrage in Montana.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 64, no. 2 (2014): 4-6.


Last name, First name (or Organization). "Title of Page." Last modified date [if not available, use Accessed date]. url.

Southern Methodist University Libraries. "Places to Study." Accessed March 16, 2022.

World Health Organization. "The Top 10 Causes of Death." Last modified December 9, 2020.

General Formatting Rules

  • Alphabetize entries and use a hanging indent.
  • Most entries follow the format: author, title, publication information, date.

Sample Notes


1. Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: Viking Press, 1963), 24.

Shortened: 2. Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem, 26.

Book Chapters

3. David Hempton, "The People Called Methodists: Transitions in Britain and North America," in Oxford Handbook of Methodist Studies, ed. James E. Kirby and William J. Abraham (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 72.

Shortened: 4. Hempton, "People Called Methodists," 75. 

Journal Articles

5. Martha Kohl, “Women’s Suffrage in Montana,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 64, no. 2 (2014): 5.

Shortened: 6. Kohl, "Women's Suffrage in Montana," 6.


7. "Places to Study", Southern Methodist University Libraries, accessed March 16, 2022,

Shortened: 8. "Places to Study."

General Formatting Rules

  • Footnotes and endnotes appear in the order in which the citations occur in the text.
  • The formatting for endnotes (end of body of paper) and footnotes (at the bottom of each page) is the same.
  • Notes are coordinated with superscript numbers that appear in the body of the text.
  • Shortened notes are used for subsequent references to the same source after a full note has been completed. 

Chicago Manual of Style

What's Ibid.?

Ibid. is the abbreviation for Ibidem (meaning "in the same place" in Latin), and was used in previous versions of Chicago Style to denote that two or more consecutive citations were from the same source.  The Chicago Manual now recommends using shortened citations rather than Ibid.

Turabian Style

Turabian Style is the student version of Chicago Style, for papers not intended for publication.