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APA Style Guidance
American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is most commonly used in the social sciences, as well as other areas in which currency is important. APA Style is not just how you cite your sources, but writing style and formatting as well.
Characteristics of APA Style
- In-text citations (author, date) appear in parentheses at the end of a sentence before the period.
- A References page at the end of the document has full citations in alphabetical order formatted with a hanging indent.
- Most references follow the format: author, date, title, source.
- If a reference isn't cited in your paper, it shouldn't be included in your reference list.
The Publication Manual of the APA is the authoritative source on APA Style and the best place to look for information. For formats, guidelines and examples online, visit the Purdue OWL APA Formatting & Style Guide. The APA recently released the 7th edition of the manual.
Always check with your professor for which edition to use and any specific citation requirements.
Resources for APA Style
Purdue OWL APA Formatting & Style Guide
APA document format, in-text citation format, and reference list citation format from the Purdue writing center.
Click on the Style and Grammar Guidelines drop down menu for detailed notes and examples of citations, references, formatting, and grammar.
APA Style Blog
Have a question that you can't find in the APA Manual or Purdue OWL? The APA Style Blog is a great place to search.
APA Tutorials and Webinars
Both the tutorial “Basics of 7th ed APA style” and the webinar “Creating References Using Seventh Edition APA Style” are very helpful.
APA Manual Online
APA does not license libraries to purchase an online edition of the Publication Manual, but electronic versions are available for purchase through these sites.
Citing Business Sources in APA