Citations are a necessary component of a research paper. Scenarios that need a citation:
You do NOT need to cite:
Citations commonly include the same identifiers:
These identifiers allow fellow researchers to find and access materials efficiently. Please see the specific pages in this guide that correspond to the style required by your professor for more information.
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is an alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. It is good practice to try to include a DOI for every citation accessed electronically. APA, MLA, and Chicago Style all recommend including the DOI in your citation.