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DISC 2306: Prof. Rosendale: Citing Sources

This guide contains resources I think will best help you all write your comparative research papers on each of your conflicts of choice

Style Guides

Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 16th edition appears in two forms: Notes/Bibliography (NB) and Author/Date (AD). Ask your instructor as to which form of CMS to use. Footnotes or endnotes are coordinated with superscript numbers that appear in the body of the text. A bibliography of all sources with full citations in alphabetical order formatted with a hanging indent appears at the end of the document. Please note: If you use ProQuest Flow to automatically generate a bibliography, you will need to modify the citations for the note format.

The first time a source is used, the note should follow the note form below. Any additional references to the same source after that may be shortened to just author surname, shortened title, and page number. However, if you cite the same source two or more times in a row, just use "Ibid" or the same source but a different page, use "Ibid, new page number" (ex. Ibid, 21).

General formats (NB):

Note, print book: 

Author first and last name, Title of Book (Location: Publisher, date), page #.

Bibliography, print book: 

Author last name, First name. Title of Book. Location: Publisher, date.

Note, print periodical article: 

Author first and last name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal, volume # (date): page # range. 

Bibliography, print periodical article: 

Author last name, First name. “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume # (date): page #.

Note, website:

Author first and last name, "Title of page." Publisher. URL.

Bibliography, website:

Author last name, First M. "Title of page." Publisher. URL.

For more specific scenarios:

MLA (Modern Language Association) citation style is most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities. In-text citations appear in parentheses at the end of sentence before the period. These coordinate with a reference list at the end of the document that has full citations in alphabetical order formatted with a hanging indent.

General formats:

Reference list, print book chapter: 

Author last name, Author first name. "Chapter Title." Book Title. City of publication: Publisher, date. Page number range. Print.

Reference list, general web source: 

Author last name, Author first name. “Name of Web Page.” Title of site. Sponsor, date created (n.d. if not). Web. Date of Access.

Dates appear in this form: 24 Feb. 2015

Reference list, print periodical article: 

Author last name, Author first name. "Article Title." Periodical Title. Date: Page number range. Print.

Dates appear in this form: 24 Feb. 2015

In-text citation, basic: 

(Author last name, page number)

For more specific scenarios:

Prof. Rosendale's Source Guidelines

10 (or more) sources

2X secondary peer-reviewed/scholarly sources found in SMU's databases [Journals, NOT newspapers/magazines]

1X primary source [Ex) photograph, letter, newspaper clipping, radio spot, interview, artwork]

2X print, non-internet sources from the SMU library [books, maps, hard-copies of documents etc.]

3X course readings [from this class or 2305]

1X source that is less than three years old, and not specifically scholarly [Ex) a blog, newspaper op-ed, song, film, TV show, etc.]  

Other sources: may be publications from organizations, newspaper articles, educational videos, or more scholarly sources.

Make sure any web sources pass the credibility test outlined on p. 79 of The Curious Researcher (Canvas document, “Research Evaluation”)!

You should provide citations in order to give others credit and avoid plagiarism. Also, you are joining an academic conversation, allowing others to follow your research.

Scenarios that need a citation:

  • Direct quotations
  • Original ideas or arguments
  • Statistics or original research
  • Opinions or claims made by others
  • Images or artwork

"Citation needed" by futureatlas.com, CC 2.0