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Citing Business Sources: Overview

Common Scenarios in Citing Business Sources in APA

The APA style manual covers many major publication types, but business databases present unique challenges for citation. When stating where you retrieved the information from, the only URLs you should give are those on the open Internet (as opposed to URLs from behind authentication).

Be sure to check with your professor for any specific citation requirements.


Blog Post

Citing a blog post looks very similar to citing a company website, with the addition of a format description in square brackets. You should be more specific with the date of the post.

Case Study

How you cite a case study depends on whether you found it in a book, a journal, or a website. You would add the format description in square brackets. If there is a case study number, you would add that after the title. Notice that if a case study is in a book, the title is not italicized.

  • Miller, S. (2019). The XYZ Group [Case study]. In J. Jones, Cases in digital processing (pp.11-20). New York, NY: Penguin Publishing.
  • Design Business Association. (2019). Beeston Library [Case study]. WARC database.
  • Smith, S. (2003). Leadership [Case study]. HBS No. 7-806-122. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Company or Industry Profile

Most profiles do not have a personal author name, but you can use the corporate name of the publisher or database instead. Notice that you designate what kind of information this is in the square brackets. If you can't find a date, use n.d. instead.

  • Mergent Intellect. (n.d.). Starbucks Corporation [Company profile]. Mergent Intellect database.
  • PrivCo Media, LLC. (2018). Mary Kay profile and business model [Company profile]. PrivCo database.

Company or Association Websites

Typically, there is no individual author for a company or association website, so the company is the corporate author. The italicized title is the name of the webpage or web article. If the content is not dated, use "n.d." instead.

Form 10-K

You may find a Form 10-k or annual report from a company's website or from a database. This should be reflected in your citation when you state where you retrieved it from. The author is always the company itself.

Press Release

You can usually find an author of a press release. Use a specific date rather than just the year. You may have retrieved a press release from a website or from a database, and the citation should reflect that.

Franco, J. (2010, November 11). Four in five adults say that being able to charge their devices wirelessly would make life easier.

Simmons Insights

For the title, use the name of the study that you selected. The author is the company, Simmons Research. The year is the year of the study that you selected. Indicate that it is a data chart in square brackets.

  • Simmons Research. (2015). Spring 2015 NCHS Adult Study 12-month [Data chart]. Simmons OneView.

Social Media

The owner of the page is the author and the social media platform is the title if it is a page in LinkedIn or Facebook.  For Twitter, the title is the actual tweet. You should indicate the date you retrieved it since social media changes frequently.


The author is the source of the statistics, which could be a corporate or governmental body. Take note of the designation of data chart in square brackets. You could also designate a data file, a map, or whatever other form the information takes in the square brackets.

  • Statista, Inc. (2017, September). eCommerce: Key indicators [Data chart]. Retrieved on November 1, 2017 from

Stock Quotes

The author is the stock exchange the price is from. Notice that you need to be specific about the date, since prices change constantly. In the section for where you retrieved it, state where you found it with a database name if behind authentication or with a URL if on the open Internet.

NYSE. (2015, June 24). Starbucks Corporation [Stock quote and chart]. Retrieved October 30, 2017 from

Communication Arts Librarian

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Megan Heuer